Monthly Archives: March 2014

The Basics of Finding Oil and Natural Gas Presented by Sentry Energy

Based in Addison, Texas, Sentry Energy specializes in extracting oil from wells previously thought to be dry through a combination of cutting-edge extraction techniques and prudent exploration choices. Geologists generally locate oil and natural gas while working for oil companies or exploration firms.

When looking for a likely reservoir, geologists take into account the necessary elements for oil or gas to form and accumulate. A viable deposit must have source rock from which the oil is produced, porous reservoir rock to hold the oil, and trap rock to prevent the oil from escaping and to collect it in an accessible deposit. Early oil prospectors looked for oil and gas using clues on the surface, including features of the land, the kind of rock and soil found on the surface, and core samples obtained through shallow drilling. With these pieces of information, they then worked to make an educated guess about where oil might be.

Today, scientists utilize a number of high tech tools to improve their accuracy, including satellite imagery to examine the terrain, gravity meters to measure changes in the Earth’s gravitational pull due to oil, and magnetometers to examine the Earth’s magnetic field. Geologists also employ very sensitive detectors called sniffers to find hydrocarbons that suggest the presence of oil.

Finally, they use the science of seismology, in which they produce shock waves or vibrations that pass through the layers of the earth and reflect back, revealing the composition of the Earth’s crust much as a bat’s sonar reveals the objects ahead. Seismic surveys use a number of sources of vibration, including compressed air guns, thumper trucks, and explosives. The rate at which the vibrations travel through the ground varies depending on the density of the layers of rock. With sensitive microphones, geologists pick up the reflections of these shock waves and through interpretations they discover trapped oil or gas.

Where Did Oil Come From?

Many scientists believe that petroleum comes from the remains of millions of long-dead plants and animals. One theory holds that most petroleum comes from the decomposition of very tiny marine organisms and plants, although a number of larger animals may have contributed, as well. The tiny creatures that compose most oil are known as diatoms. Although they were not technically plants, diatoms did convert sunlight into energy just as plants do. Diatoms live in the top few meters of large bodies of water, such as lakes and oceans, and serve as a source of food for a wide range of marine animals.

To create oil, the conditions may have included a thick layer of diatoms and other organic remains piled up on the floors of the sea and lakes, gradually getting buried in sediment and compressed. Extreme heat and pressure combined to cause a number of chemical reactions that convert the organic matter first into source rock called shale and then into oil and natural gas. Oil starts out stored under ground in reservoir rock. This includes a wide range of rock varieties, including limestone, dolostone, and sandstone. These kinds of rock are porous and have space inside them where oil can be trapped and stored, just as a sponge can trap water or other liquids.

Oil held in reservoir rock then moves around as layers of earth shift. For energy companies to access oil for exploration and extraction, the substance must build up in reservoirs composed of less porous trap or seal rocks that block oil from passing through. The reservoirs formed by trap rock cause oil to pool in some areas, where prospectors and extraction companies can access and remove the oil.

About Sentry Energy: Based in Addison, Texas, Sentry Energy conducts exploration for and extraction of oil and gas. The firm enables partners to diversity their business interests into the energy sector.

Sentry Energy Production LLC on the Components of a Pumpjack

PumpjackIn the world of oil and natural gas extraction, setting up new drill sites on areas of land that have produced consistently high quantities of oil in the past is an innovative and low-risk way to ensure quality oil production. Sentry Energy Production LLC, a privately held oil and natural gas company based in Addison, Texas, draws upon this very method throughout all aspects of its operations. In addition to located new pay zones in productive areas, Sentry Energy Production also applies some of the latest advances in technology to extract additional oil from existing wells.

Like many oil companies, Sentry Energy Production makes heavy use of the pumpjack, one of the most ubiquitous pieces of oil drilling equipment in the history of the industry. Commonly referred to as a horsehead pump or a beam pump, the pumpjack utilizes reciprocating piston pump to extract oil from an oil well. In general, pumpjacks are most effective when used on land in areas that produce little oil with bottom hole pressure alone. Pumpjacks also have the potential to vary greatly in size, ranging from 5 to 40 liters of oil production during each pump cycle, based on the depth and weight of the oil in question. In most cases, pumpjacks rely on energy from a rotational motor to produce the vertical reciprocating motion necessary to extract oil.

Before the development of sophisticated electric motors, pumpjacks often relied on a network of rod lines that were connected to a wheel mechanism known as a Central Power. The Central Power system was highly inefficient, however, as it relied on combustion engines and required a high level of maintenance to operate at maximum production levels. Today, pumpjacks derive the majority of their energy from a device known as a prime mover. Although most prime movers currently take the form of an electric motor, many make use of unorthodox engine types such as propane systems and casing gas from the well itself. Deep in the well hole, pumpjacks contain a feature called a down-hole pump, composed of two ball check valves. As the pump descends into the well, oil enters the formation through a series of perforations in the casing and cement. As the pump lifts out of the well, the traveling valve closes, allowing the formation to safely transport the oil to the surface before depositing it in the pump barrel.